Fugitive emissions

Fugitive Emissions and the Carcinogens 5-1

The clean air act of 1990 was signed by President Bush in November of 1990. This was the toughest version yet. It addressed many subjects that included :

  • To bring from 7 to 189 the number of toxic chemicals that will be controlled, aiming at a reduction of 90% by the year 2000.
  • The phasing out of chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs) and carbon tetrachloride by 2000 and the banning of hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) by 2030

The first 41 categories of chemicals and compounds became law in November 1992. Sixty three more were added in November 1994, another sixty three in 1997, and the restin January 1, 2000. Hazardous organics were thethe first to be scrutinized. Benzene, coke oven emissions, and ethylene oxide sterilizers will probably follow shortly after.

Plants will be required to install the best available air pollution control devices described as “Maximum Achievable Control Technologies” (MACT). MACT will be defined as “the best available controls [for plants of the same type], taking cost into account”. New plants will have to match the control levels reached by the lowest emitters in their category, while existing plants will have to meet a target based on the average emissions from 12% of their competitors most tightly controlled plants.

In this paper I have noted the chemicals that are presently on both the Carcinogen and Fugitive Emissions lists. The compounds on these lists should be sealed with two (dual) mechanical seals to prevent their escaping to the atmosphere and violating the applicable restrictions or possible harming personnel in the area.

The first list is for the fugitive emission chemicals . You’ll note that I have included some uses for these compounds along with the names. Fugitive emissions are defined as those emissions not caught by a capture system which are often due to equipment leaks, evaporative processes and windblown disturbances.

The list of 189 Toxic compounds includes :

  • Acetaldehyde * … Manufacturing acetic acid and acetic anhydride.
  • Acryilic Acid * … A monomer for polyacrylic and other acrylic polymers
  • Acrylonitrile * … Plastic fibers and grain fumigant.
  • Allyl chloride … Resins, adhesives
  • Aniline * … Rubber, dyes, explosives petroleum refining herbicides, fungicides.
  • Benzene … Styrene, insecticides, solvent, paint remover, rubber cement, gasoline anti- knock additive.
  • Benzyl Chloride … Dyes, photograph developer, pharmaceuticals.
  • 1,3-Butadiene … Rubber, latex paints.
  • Caprolactam * … Plastics, film coatings, paint.
  • Carbon Tetrachloride … Refrigerants, propellants, metal degreasing, production of semi- conductors.
  • Chlorine … Plastics, refrigerants, propellants, solvents, water treatment, sewage treatment, pulp and paper.
  • Chlorobenzene … Solvent.
  • Chloroform … Refrigerant, propellants, plastics, dyes, drugs, solvent.
  • Cresols/ cresylic acid … Coatings, metal cleaning, oil additive, pesticide
  • Cumene … Production of phenol and acetone.
  • Diethanolamine * … Liquid detergent, paint, cutting oils, shampoo, cleaners, polish
  • Dimethyl Phthalate … Plastacizer, resins, rubber, solid rocket propellant.
  • Epichlorohydrin * … Epoxy resins, rubber, solvent, resins for paper industry.
  • Ethyl Benzene … Styrene production, solvent.
  • Ethyl Chloride … Manufacture of tetraethyl lead. Solvent for fats, oils, resins, waxes
  • Ethylene Dichloride * … Vinyl chloride, finish removers, penetrating agents.
  • Ethylene Glycol * … Anti-freeze, brake fluid, lacquers, paints, adhesives.
  • Ethylene Oxide * … Manufacture of ethylene glycol, petroleum demulsifier.
  • Formaldehyde * … Resins, preservative, dye, reducing agents.
  • Glycol Ethers
    • mono- and di-ethers of ethylene
    • diethylene glycols
    • triethylene glycols
  • Hydrochloric Acid * … Ore reduction, pickling, metal cleaning, cleaning.
  • Hydrofluoric acid * … Glass etching, aluminum production, cleaning castings.
  • Maleic Anhydride … Resins, pestacides, permanent press resins, fumaric acid manufacture.
  • Methanol (methyl alcohol) * … Anti freeze, dye, resins, chemical synthesis.
  • Methyl Methacrylate … Monomer for resins, impregnate for concrete.
  • Methylene Chloride … Paint remover, solvent, degreaser, textile coating.
  • Phenol * … Resins, solvent for refining, lubricating oil.
  • Phosphorus … Manufacture of phosphoric acid.
  • Phthalic Anhydride … Hardener for resins, dyes, chlorinated products.
  • Propylene Oxide * … Glycols, surfactant, detergents, synthetic lubricants.
  • Styrene … Foam, radiator leak stopper.
  • Styrene Oxide … Organic intermediate.
  • Perchloroethylene … Dry cleaning solvent, drying agent for metals.
  • Titanium Trichloride … Reducing agent, stripping agent.
  • Toluene … Aviation gasoline, adhesive solvent, explosives, plastics.
  • Trichloroethylene … Metal degreasing, extraction solvent, dyeing, dry cleaning.
  • Vinyl Acetate … Latex paints, paper coating, adhesives, safety glass.
  • Vinyl Bromide … Synthesis.
  • Vinyl Chloride … Polyvinyl chloride, adhesive for plastics.
  • Xylenes … Aviation gasoline, protective coatings, rubber cements, lacquers.
  • Compounds based on :
    • Arsenic
    • Beryllium
    • Cadmium
    • Chromium
    • Cobalt
    • Cyanide
    • Lesad
    • Manganese
    • Mercury
    • Nickel
    • Selenium
  • Polycyclic Organics
  • Coke oven emissions
  • Radionuclides
  • Radon
  • Asbestos
  • Fine Mineral fibers

* dissolves in water, so you should be able to use water as a flush or as a barrier fluid between two mechanical seals. Check with your technical people to be sure.

In the United States, cancer is the second most common cause of death. Section 262 of Public law 95-622 of November 9,1978 stipulates that the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human services shall publish an annual report which contains a list of all substances which either are known to be carcinogens or may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens and to which a significant number of persons in the United States are exposed.

The comprehensive list was published in the 1989 summary. I have extrapolated those chemicals that we encounter in the petrochemical industry and left out those that are pretty much limited to the medical profession. If you are interested in allowable exposure limits or have any other questions about the noted chemicals contact the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for the Fifth Annual Report On Carcinogens Summary 1989 NTP 89-239.

Known carcinogens are defined as, “those substances for which the evidence from human studies indicates that there is a casual relationship between the exposure to the substance and human cancer.” The list includes :

  • 4-Aminobiphenyl … No commercial use in the United states. Was used as a rubber antioxidant and as a reagent for detecting sulfates.
  • Arsenic and certain Arsenic compounds … Pestacides, wood preservatives, alloying additive, glass and non ferrous alloys.
  • Asbestos … Insulation, gasketing, packing, coatings, plastics, textiles, friction materials.
  • Benzene … Solvent, gasoline additive.
  • Benzidine … Dyes in textile and paper.
  • Bis(chloromethyl)ether and technical grade Chloromethyl Methyl Ether … Synthesis of plastic and ion exchanger resins.
  • Chromium and certain Chromium compounds … Stainless steel, pigment, Medical, plating, wood treatment, paint
  • Mustard Gas … Biological studies, weapons.
  • 2-Naphthylamine … Dyes, rubber. Used only for research purposes.
  • Thorium Dioxide … Nuclear, flame spraying, welding electrodes, high temperature ceramics.
  • Vinyl Chloride … Plastics, wrapping film, phonograph records, credit cards floor tiles.

Here are some substances which may reasonably be anticipated to be carcinogens. Defined as, “those for which there is a limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans or sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals”.

  • Acrylonitrile … Synthetic fibers resins, plastics, elastomers.
  • 2-Aminoanthraquinone … Dyes, paints plastics, rubber, printing inks.
  • o-Aminoazotoluene … Pigments, coloring oils, wax polishes.
  • 1-Amino-2-methyllanthraquinine … Dye for synthetic fibers as well as animal furs.
  • Amitrole … Herbacide, now limited to non crop applications.
  • o-Anisidine Hydrochloride … Dyes.
  • Benzotrichloride … Plastics, dyes and pigments.
  • Beryllium and certain Beryllium compounds … Alloys for areo space applications, ceramic additive to glass and plastic.
  • 1,3-Butadiene … Synthetic rubber, tires, nylon carpet backing, latex adhesives
  • Cadmium and certain Cadmium compounds … Coating and plating.
  • Carbon Tetrachloride … Production of Freon 11 & 12, de-greasing, plastic and resin production.
  • Chlorendic Acid … Flame retardant, foams.
  • Chlorinated Parraffins (C12, 60% Chlorine) … Lubricant additive, flame retardant, rubber production.
  • Chloroform … Production of flurocarbon, refrigerant, heat transfer medium in fire extinguishers.
  • 3-Chloro-2-methylpropene … Fumigant, textile additive, plastics.
  • 4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine … Hair dye, photographic chemicals.
  • C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride … Dye for textiles, leather printing inks, china clay.
  • p-Cresidine … Dyes.
  • Cupferron … A reagent to seperate tin from zinc and copper and iron from other metals.
  • DDT … Insecticide. In the U.S. it used only under Public Health Service supervision.
  • 2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate … Fur, acrylic fiber, polyster, wool , cotton and hair dye.
  • 2,4Diaminotoluene … Polyurethane, dye.
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane … Soil fumigant.
  • 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) … Gasoline anti-knock additive, pestacide
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene … Space deodorant (toilets, rooms) germacide
  • 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine Dithydrochloride … Pigments.
  • 1,2-Dichlorethane … Component of leaded fuel, production of vinyl chloride.
  • Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) … Solvent in paint removers, manufacture of vitamins, degreasing agent.
  • 1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade) … Pesticides.
  • Diepoxybutane … Curing agent for polymers.
  • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate … Used to make poly vinyl chloride.
  • Diethyl Sulfate … Surfacants, dyes, agricultural chemicals.
  • Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether … Liquid epoxy resin.
  • 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine … Production of azo dyes.
  • 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene … To color polishes and other wax products.
  • 3,3′-Dimethylbenzidine … Dye, chlorine test kits.
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride … Dyes, pestacide.
  • 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine … Propellant for liquid fuel rockets.
  • Dimethyl Sulfate … Used to manufacture other chemicals.
  • Dimethylvinyl Chloride … Organic synthesis.
  • 1,4-Dioxane … Stabilizer in chlorinated solvents.
  • Direct Black 38 … Dye
  • Direct Blue 6 … Dye
  • Epichlorohydrin … Epoxy resins.
  • Ethyl Acrylate … Paper coatings, emulsion based polymers.
  • Ethylene Oxide … Manufacture of ethylene glycol and polyster.
  • Ethylene Thiourea … Rubber, O-rings, electroplating.
  • Formaldehyde (Gas) … Adhesives, chemical production, medical.
  • Hexachlorobenzene … Pesticide
  • Hexamethylphossphoramide … Solvent for polymers, de-icing additive for jet fuels.
  • Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate …Agricultural chemicals, rocket fuel, oxygen scavanger in boiler feed water.
  • Hydrazobenzene … Dye, additive to motor oil.
  • Kepone® (Chlordecone) … Insecticide, no longer used in the U.S.
  • Lead Acetate and Lead Phosphate … Drier in paints and varnish, colorant in hair dyes.
  • Lindane and other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers … Insecticidal treatment for wood, grain and live stock.
  • 2-Methylaziridine (Proplyleneimine) … Paper, textile, rubber.
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) … Curing agent.
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine … Dye
  • 4,4′-Methylenedianiline and its Dihydrochloride … Manufacture of polyisocynates and isocyanates.
  • Michler’s Ketone … Dyes and pigments.
  • Mirex … Pesticide, fire retardant.
  • Nickel and certain Nickel compounds …. Stainless and alloy steel.
  • Nitrilotriacetic Acid … Detergent, water treatment.
  • 5-Nitro-o-Anisidine … Dye
  • 2-Nitropropane … Solvent, inks, paints polymers.
  • N-Nitrosodiethanolamine … No commercial use.
  • N-Nitrosodiethylamine … Stabilizer in plastics, gasoline and lubricant additive.
  • N-Nitrosodimethylamine … Liquid rocket fuel, solvent.
  • p-Nitrosodiphenylamine … Rubber, dye.
  • N-Nitrosopiperidine … Epoxy resin.
  • 4,4′-Oxydianiline … Production of polyimide and poly(ester)mide resins.
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls … Flame retardant, plastics.
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls … Heat transfer and hydraulic fluids.
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbones, 15 listings … Coal tar, roofing, creosote, asphalt.
    • Benza(a)anthracene
    • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(j)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(k)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(a)pyrene
    • Dibenz(a,h)acridine
    • Dibenz(a,j)acridine
    • Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
    • 7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole
    • Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
    • Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene
    • Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
    • Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
    • 5-Methylchrysene
  • 1,3-Propane Sultone … Detergents lathering agents.
  • Propylene Oxide … Coatings and adhesives.
  • Saccharin … Sweetening agent.
  • Safrole … Flavoring agent.
  • Selenium Sulfide … Shampoos.
  • Sulfallate …Herbacide.
  • Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) … Dry cleaning and textle production.
  • Thioacetamide … Replacement for hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis.
  • Thiourea … Animal glue.
  • Toluene Diisocyanate … Polyurethane foam.
  • o-Toluidine and o-Toluidine Hydrochloride … Dyes and pigments.
  • Toxaphene … Insecticide
  • 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol … Wood preservative, anti mildew.
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate … No longer used in the U.S. .Was a flame retardant.
  • Urethane … No commercial use because of its toxicity.

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS & CARCINOGENS

Fugitive emissions

  • Acetaldehyde *
  • Acryilic Acid *
  • Acrylonitrile *
  • Allyl chloride Aniline *
  • Benzene
  • Benzyl Chloride
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • Caprolactam *
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Chlorine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Chloroform
  • Cresols/ cresylic acid
  • Cumene Diethanolamine *
  • Dimethyl Phthalate
  • Epichlorohydrin *
  • Ethyl Benzene
  • Ethyl Chloride
  • Ethylene Dichloride *
  • Ethylene Glycol *
  • Ethylene Oxide *
  • Formaldehyde *
  • Glycol Ethers
    • • mono- and di-ethers of ethylene
    • •diethylene glycols
    • • triethylene glycols
  • Hydrochloric Acid *
  • Hydrofluoric acid *
  • Maleic Anhydride
  • Methanol (methyl alcohol) *
  • Methyl Methacrylate
  • Methylene Chloride
  • Phenol*
  • Phosphorus
  • Phthallic Anhydride
  • Propylene Oxide*
  • Styrene
  • Styrene Oxide
  • Perchloroethylene
  • Titanium Trichloride
  • Toluene
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Vinyl Acetate
  • Vinyl Bromide
  • Vinyl Chloride
  • Xylenes
  • Compounds based on :
    • • Arsenic
    • • Beryllium
    • • Cadmium
    • • Chromium
    • • Cobalt
    • • Cyanide
    • • Lesad
    • • Manganese
    • • Mercury
    • • Nickel
    • • Selenium
  • Polycyclic Organics
  • Coke oven emissions
  • Radionuclides
  • Radon
  • Asbestos
  • Fine Mineral fibers

Known Carcinogens

  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • Analgesic mixtures containing Phenacetin
  • Arsenic and certain Arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine
  • Bis(chloromethyl)ether and technical grade Chloromethyl Methyl Ether
  • 1,4-Butanediol Dimethylsulfonate (Myleran)
  • Chlorambucil
  • Chromium and certain Chromium compounds
  • Conjugated Estrogens
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • Dimethylnitrosamine
  • Ethyleneimine
  • Melphalan
  • Methoxsalen with Ultra-violet A Therapy (PUVA)
  • 4,4′-Methylene bis-(2-dichloroaniline)
  • Methyl (chloromethyl) ether bis (Chloromethyl) ether
  • Mustard Gas
  • 1-Naphthylamine
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • 4-Nitrobiphenyl
  • Thorium Dioxide
  • Vinyl Chloride
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene

Believed to be carcinogens

  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Adriamycin
  • Aflatoxins
  • 2-Aminoanthraquinone
  • o-Aminoazotoluene
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • 4-Aminodiphenyl
  • 1-Amino-2-methyllanthraquinine
  • Amitrole
  • o-Anisidine Hydrochloride
  • Aromatic Amines
  • Auramine
  • Benzotrichloride
  • Beryllium and certain Beryllium compounds .
  • Bischloroethyl Nitrousourea
  • Bromoprene
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • Cadmium and certain Cadmium compounds
  • Carbaryl
  • Carbon Disulfide
  • Carbon Tetrachloride
  • Chlorendic Acid
  • Chlorinated Parraffins (C12, 60% Chlorine) 1-(2-Chloroethy)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)
  • Chloroform
  • 3-Chloro-2-methylpropene
  • 4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine
  • Chloroprene
  • C.I. Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride
  • p-Cresidine
  • Cupferron
  • Dacarbazine
  • DDT
  • 2,4-Diaminoanisole Sulfate
  • 2,4-Diaminotoluene
  • Diazinon
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
  • 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB)
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine
  • Dichlorovos
  • Dithydrochloride
  • 1,2-Dichlorethane
  • Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride)
  • 1,3-Dichloropropene (Technical Grade)
  • Diepoxybutane
  • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
  • Diethylstilboestrol
  • Diethyl Sulfate
  • Diglycidyl Resorcinol Ether
  • 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine
  • 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dimethylbenzidine
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl Chloride
  • 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
  • Dimethyl Sulfate
  • Dimethylvinyl Chloride
  • 1,4-Dioxane
  • Direct Black 38
  • Direct Blue 6
  • Epibromohydrin
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Estrogens (Not Conjucated): Estradiol-17ß
  • Estrogens (Not Cojugated): Estrone
  • Estrogens (Not Conjucated): Ethinylestradiol
  • Estrogens (Not Cojugated): Mestranol
  • Ethyl Acrylate
  • Ethyl alcohol
  • Ethylene Dibromide
  • Ethylene Oxide
  • Ethylene Thiourea
  • Formaldehyde (Gas)
  • Halothane
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Hexachlorophene
  • Hexamethylphossphoramide
  • Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate .
  • Hydrazobenzene
  • Iron Dextran Complex
  • Kepone® (Chlordecone)
  • Lead Acetate and Lead Phosphate
  • Lindane and other Hexachlorocyclohexane Isomers
  • Melphalan
  • Methoxyflurane
  • 2-Methylaziridine (Proplyleneimine)
  • 20-Methylcholanthrene
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine
  • 4,4′-Methylenedianiline and its Dihydrochloride
  • Metronidazole
  • Michler’s Ketone
  • Mirex
  • 1-Napthylamine
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Nickel and certain Nickel compounds
  • Nickel Sulfide
  • Nitrilotriacetic Acid
  • 5-Nitro-o-Anisidine
  • Nitofen
  • 4-Nitrobiphenyl
  • Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride
  • 2-Nitropropane
  • N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
  • N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
  • N-Nitrosodiethylamine
  • N-Nitrosodimethylamine
  • p-Nitrosodiphenylamine
  • N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
  • N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea
  • N-Nitroso-N-methylurea
  • N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine
  • N-Nitrosomorpholine
  • N-Nitrosonornicotine
  • N-Nitrosopiperidine
  • N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
  • N-Nitrososarcosine
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Norethisterone
  • 4,4′-Oxydianiline
  • Oxymetholone
  • Perbromoethylene
  • Perchloroethylene
  • Phenacetin
  • PhenazopyridineHydrochloride
  • Phenoxybenzamine Hydrochloride
  • Phenytoin
  • Phosphine
  • Polybrominated Biphenyls
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbones, 15 listings
    • Benza(a)anthracene
    • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(j)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(k)fluoranthene
    • Benzo(a)pyrene
    • Dibenz(a,h)acridine
    • Dibenz(a,j)acridine
    • Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
    • 7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole
    • Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
    • Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene
    • Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
    • Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
    • 5-Methylchrysene
  • Procarbazine Hydrochloride
  • Progesterone
  • 1,3-Propane Sultone
  • Propiolactone
  • Propylene Oxide
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Reserpine
  • Saccharin
  • Safrole
  • Selenium Sulfide
  • Sodium o-phenylphenate
  • Streptozotocin
  • Styrene (Vinyl Benzene)
  • Sulfallate
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
  • Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)
  • Thioacetamide .
  • Thiourea
  • Toluene Diisocyanate
  • o-Toluidine and o-Toluidine Hydrochloride
  • Toxaphene
  • Trichloroethylene
  • 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
  • Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine Sulfide
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate
  • Urethane
  • Vinyl Bromide
  • Vinylidene Bromide
  • Vinylidene Chloride
  • Yellow fatty dye

Occupational exposures associated with a technical process that are known to be carcinogenic

  • Coke oven emissions
  • Soots, tars and mineral oils

Delisted Chemicals

  • Aramite®
  • N,N-Bis(2-chloroethy)-2-naphthylamine (Chlornaphazine)
  • Cycasin
  • Methyl Iodine

*Soluble in water, so you should be able to use water as a flush or barrier fluid between two seals. Check with your technical people

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  • On February 17, 2018