The removal of mineral contaminants from water, usually present in an ionized form. If you are curious, an ion is defined as a charged atom.

There are several removal techniques that include:

  • Ion-exchange. This is the technique used by most commercial water softeners.
  • Flash distillation. Commonly used for sea-water desalination.
  • Electrodialysis. In this method an electric current is used to separate substances that ionize in water. Often used in large scale water desalination.