MONOLITHIC FACE M028
The drawing on the left describes a carbon graphite face that is often called a monolithic design by some seal manufacturers. They use this terminology to differentiate the solid carbon / graphite face from a carbon / graphite face that is inserted into a metal holder and called a composite.
The composite is shown in the drawing on the right hand side.
The carbon graphite face can either be pressed in, or shrunk into the metal holder. Pressed in is better because the softer carbon will shear to conform to irregularities in the metal holder inside diameter. This shearing will tend to keep the lapped face flatter than shrinking in the carbon and letting the metal holder retain the carbon on “high spots” that can cause small amounts of face distortion.